- Many Japanese castles were built or renovated during the Sengoku period.
- They usually have a moat to prevent the enemy to infiltrate by tunnels.
- There are loopholes for guns and arrows (Himeji castle has more than 1000 loopholes).
- They have a main gate used to trick the enemy. There are usually traps around the main gate.
- Sometimes the number of floors are tricky (Matsuyama castle has 6 floors but looks like 5 from the outside).
- There are hidden corridors, and confusing mazes that make it difficult to locate the commanding room such as the UNESCO world heritage site Himeji Castle.
- Nijo Castle in Kyoto has nightingale floors that squeak to make sure the ninjas cannot raid in the middle of the night while people are sleeping.
- Kumomoto castle has many fruit trees inside so that people can feed themselves by the fruits during a siege.
- Azuchi castle was built on the top of a steep hill with a separate tower inside so that the residents could see the approaching groups from dozens of kilometers away.
- Each castle had an official drum (taiko) beater samurai to tell the time.
- It takes years to build a castle but according to a story Hideyoshi Toyotomi built the Sunomata castle overnight by using pre fabric walls.
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